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vmware_compAfter upgrading my kernel to 3.8.0-6-generic on Ubuntu Raring today vmplayer 5.0.1-894247.x86_64 was not able to find the C header files matching the latest kernel on first run. It was throwing the following error:

C header files matching your running kernel were not found. Refer 
to your distribution's documentation for installation instructions.

Evidently the installation process is unable to find the correct version.h file. I used:

ln -s /usr/src/linux-headers-3.8.0-6-generic/include/generated/uapi/linux/version.h \
/usr/src/linux-headers-3.8.0-6-generic/include/linux/version.h

It continued for a while but eventually failed to compile all the modules. Then I found the required patch to complete the compilation in vmware community forums. To apply the patch:

cd /usr/lib/vmware/modules/source
tar -xf vmci.tar
cd vmci-only
patch -p1 < 'patchfile'
cd ..
tar -cf vmci.tar vmci-only/

then re-run vmware installer.
In case VMware is asking for your preferences on every run, you probably need to create the preferences file manually:

cd
su
mkdir .vmware
touch .vmware/preferences
chmod  777 .vmware
chmod 666 .vmware/preferences

If you face any issues while compiling the kernel modules you can also try compiling them from the terminal using:

vmware-modconfig --console --install-all

Update:

  1. I tried installing the latest VMware Player 5.0.2 on the same setup. It uninstalled the previous version and installed itself without any issues. The procedure works fine on Ubuntu mainline kernel 3.9.0 and 3.9.7 as well.
  2. VMware Player 6.0.0 has been released on Sep 3, 2013. I have installed it on kernel 3.11.0 and 3.12.0 from Ubuntu mainline kernel PPA without any issues.